Research Study Listings

Below is a list of active research studies that have been submitted by researchers to the NAA research portal. If you are a researcher interested in having your study listed below, please submit a request.


If you are looking for a full list of clinical trials, visit clinicaltrials.gov

Trial of Propranolol in Older Adults with Primary Progressive Aphasia

The purpose of this study is to find out how the language of people with Primary Progressive Aphasia is affected by Propranolol. Propranolol is not FDA approved for the treatment of Primary Progressive Aphasia. Propranolol is FDA approved for the treatment of heart conditions such as blood pressure. This research is being done because there are currently no drug treatment options for language impairments and anxiety often experienced by people with Primary Progressive Aphasia.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

We would like to try a drug to see if it helps with your talking, perhaps through limiting the anxiety while trying to talk.

City:
Columbia
State:
Missouri
Start Date:
September 13, 2023
End Date:
December 31, 2026
Condition:
Primary Progressive Aphasia

Examining Perceived Stress and Anxiety in Post-Stroke Aphasia: Exploring Self- Reports, Proxy Ratings, Qualitative Patient Experiences, and Non-Modifiable Predictors

People with aphasia will participate in a language assessment and complete three questionnaires about stress and anxiety. Care partners will complete three questionnaires about stress and anxiety as proxies for the person with aphasia.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

This study is looking at stress and anxiety in people with aphasia. Specifically, we are trying to figure out if it is possible to separate feelings of stress and anxiety in people with aphasia who may have a hard time understanding assessment questions or expressing their feelings. We are doing this by giving a language assessment to determine the type and severity of aphasia each person has. Then, they are asked to complete questionnaires that attempt to identify instances of stress and anxiety. Part of the study includes asking care partners who know the individual with aphasia to give a “proxy” report of what they think the person with aphasia’s levels of stress or anxiety are. This will help us determine if these ratings are correct. Additionally, a few people will be asked to participate in an interview that asks questions about stress and anxiety and how those feelings have changed since their stroke.

City:
Atlanta
State:
Georgia
Start Date:
May 1, 2024
End Date:
October 31, 2024
Condition:
Stroke

RESTING STATE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY AND LANGUAGE RECOVERY IN POST-STROKE APHASIA

We are conducting a research study to determine how the brain responds to language treatment. We want to investigate: 1) differences in language progress depending on the intensity of your treatment and 2) how language training produces changes in brain activation Benefits: Intensive language treatments have been demonstrated to be effective in increasing the verbal skills of many people with aphasia but the exact parameters of an intensive regimen remain unknown and not all treatment types have yet been tested. We will change various aspects of the treatment to determine how to maximize language gains. In addition, we hope to learn more about how the brain changes after language treatment, which may help other patients in the future.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

We want to study how the brain changes after treatment for aphasia. We will look at: 1) differences in language progress depending on the intensity of your treatment and 2) how language training produces changes in brain activation

City:
Storrs
State:
Connecticut
Start Date:
January 1, 2024
End Date:
September 30, 2024
Condition:
Stroke

ReadMap: Reading After Stroke and in Typical Aging

Reading is very difficult for many people after their stroke. This problem is called alexia. In this study, we will look at how reading changes in healthy aging and after stroke. Understanding specific types of reading problems and how people get better over time is the first step toward finding new ways to treat alexia. If you choose to participate: • Compensated $50/session for about 4 sessions • Free parking or transportation by Lyft or Uber to/from sessions • Flexible testing locations at either National Rehabilitation Hospital or Georgetown University • A detailed report with: -Test scores -Brain images if you complete the MRI portion of the study • You will help science and research gather information that may improve treatments for people with reading difficulties after stroke

Aphasia friendly listing description:

Reading is very difficult for many people after their stroke. This problem is called alexia. In this study, we will look at how reading changes in healthy aging and after stroke. Understanding specific types of reading problems and how people get better over time is the first step toward finding new ways to treat alexia. If you choose to participate: • Compensated $50/session for about 4 sessions • Free parking or transportation by Lyft or Uber to/from sessions • Flexible testing locations at either National Rehabilitation Hospital or Georgetown University • A detailed report with: -Test scores -Brain images if you complete the MRI portion of the study • You will help science and research gather information that may improve treatments for people with reading difficulties after stroke

City:
Washington, DC
State:
Washington, DC
Start Date:
January 1, 2023
End Date:
January 1, 2028
Condition:
Stroke

Validation of the Modified University of Washington Resilience Scale for People with Aphasia

The purpose of the study is to test the modified University of Washington Resilience Scale for people with aphasia to validate the test and to learn about resilience, stress, and well-being in people with aphasia. This online study can be completed in 1 to 2 Zoom sessions on a computer, laptop, or tablet.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

We invite you to help validate a scale on resilience for people with aphasia.

City:
Newark
State:
Delaware
Start Date:
January 9, 2020
End Date:
January 8, 2025
Condition:
Stroke

Sentence Comprehension Abilities in Mandarin-English Bilinguals with Aphasia

Overview: We are researchers from San Diego State University’s Bilingualism & Cognition Lab. We are looking for Mandarin-speaking people with aphasia to take part in our study! Goal: Our goal is to study sentence comprehension. We also want to create a new Mandarin sentence assessment for Mandarin-speaking people with aphasia. Currently, there are not many tests for Mandarin-speaking people with aphasia. Your participation would help other Mandarin-speaking people with aphasia. What You'll Do: For this study, you will complete language and memory activities in Mandarin and English. Note: We are looking for participants in California if possible, but if you are located elsewhere, please still contact us if you are interested. Please contact us at sdsubilingual@gmail.com with any questions or if you are interested in participating!

Aphasia friendly listing description:

We are researchers from San Diego State University’s Bilingualism & Cognition Lab. We are looking for Mandarin-speaking people with aphasia to take part in our study! Goal: Our goal is to study sentence comprehension. We also want to create a new Mandarin sentence assessment for Mandarin-speaking people with aphasia. Currently, there are not many tests for Mandarin-speaking people with aphasia. Your participation would help other Mandarin-speaking people with aphasia. What You'll Do: For this study, you will complete language and memory activities in Mandarin and English. Note: We are looking for participants in California if possible, but if you are located elsewhere, please still contact us if you are interested. Please contact us at sdsubilingual@gmail.com with any questions or if you are interested in participating!

City:
San Diego
State:
California
Start Date:
February 27, 2024
End Date:
June 30, 2024
Condition:
Stroke

Telepractice of Multimodal Communication Treatment

The purpose of this treatment study is to test the effects of modified multimodal communication treatment via telepractice in people with aphasia. Participants will practice five different ways to communicate objects to resolve their communication breakdowns during individual and group sessions. All assessment and treatment sessions will be offered virtually (on Zoom). If you are interested in or have questions, please email: hpark11@olemiss.edu

Aphasia friendly listing description:

We look for people with aphasia who want to receive treatment to learn various communication methods. It is a virtual treatment. You can join from any part of the U.S.

City:
Oxford
State:
Mississippi
Start Date:
January 22, 2024
End Date:
September 30, 2024
Condition:
Stroke

Neurostimulation for the treatment of Post- Stroke Aphasia

The aim of the trial is to determine whether 75Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) synchronized with therapeutic linguistic tasks is an effective form of therapy for post-stroke aphasia.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

This trial is investigating the use of non-invasive brain stimulation combined with speech therapy as an effective treatment approach for people with post- stroke aphasia.

City:
New York
State:
New York
Start Date:
December 20, 2023
End Date:
March 20, 2025
Condition:
Stroke

Investigating Music Listening as a mechanism to improve attention and language in aphasia

The Acquired Brain Injury Communication and Cognition (ABC) Lab at Purdue University is recruiting people with aphasia to take part in a study that explores whether listening to music can be used to treat language and attention difficulties. Participants will have their attention and language assessed before and after they listen to happy, sad, or no classical music for 10 minutes.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

We are recruiting people with aphasia to have their attention and language abilities tested before and after listening to happy, sad or no classical music for 10 minutes. This study is offered virtually or at the ABC Lab in West Lafayette, Indiana.

City:
West Lafayette
State:
Indiana
Start Date:
December 1, 2023
End Date:
November 30, 2024
Condition:
Stroke

Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation to Reveal Mechanisms of Language Loss and to Treat Progressive Aphasia Associated with FTD and Related Dementias

This is a double-blind, sham-controlled, crossover study in which subjects with Primary Progressive Aphasia will undergo language testing and structural and functional brain imaging before and after receiving 10 semi-consecutive daily sessions of real or sham (fake) transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) paired with modified constraint-induced language therapy (mCILT). Language testing and brain imaging will be repeated immediately after completion of and up-to 24 weeks following completion of treatment. The investigators will examine changes in language performance induced by tDCS + mCILT compared to sham tDCS + mCILT. The investigators will also use network science to analyze brain imaging (fMRI) data to identify network properties associated with baseline PPA severity and tDCS-induced changes in performance. This study will combine knowledge gained from our behavioral, imaging, and network data in order to determine the relative degrees to which these properties predict whether persons with PPA will respond to intervention. After completion of one arm, participants will crossover into the second treatment arm, where all visits will be repeated. Participation will last about 12 months and takes place at the University of Pennsylvania.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a disease that affects your brain and communication. There is currently no cure. Researchers want to know whether brain stimulation with language therapy can help improve language ability. Participants receive either real or placebo (fake) brain stimulation with language therapy, then complete language testing and brain imaging. After the first part of the study, participants get real or placebo (fake) brain stimulation again (whichever they did not get first) with language therapy. All testing sessions are repeated after the second treatment is completed. The study lasts about 12 months and takes place at the University of Pennsylvania.

City:
Philadelphia
State:
PA
Start Date:
December 1, 2020
End Date:
July 1, 2024
Condition:
Primary Progressive Aphasia

Treating primary progressive aphasia and elucidating neurodegeneration in the language network using transcranial direct current stimulation

This study is being conducted in order to determine whether High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS) paired with speech/language therapy can improve language in persons with the non-fluent /agrammatic and logopenic variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia (naPPA and lvPPA, respectively). Participants will participate in language testing and MRI scans followed up with two weeks (10 sessions) of brain stimulation paired with modified constraint-induced language therapy. The study is split into two arms – in each arm, participants will receive either real brain stimulation or placebo (fake) stimulation. After the treatment, participants will have follow-up language testing and cross over into the second round of treatment where all visits are repeated. This study will take place at the University of Pennsylvania.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurological disorder where language worsens over time. Currently, there are no treatments. We want to see if brain stimulation combined with language therapy can improve PPA. Participants will have 10 days of therapy with 20 minutes of real or placebo (fake) brain stimulation. After treatment, further testing will be completed to see if the therapy works. This study will take place at the University of Pennsylvania.

City:
Philadelphia
State:
PA
Start Date:
December 1, 2020
End Date:
July 1, 2024
Condition:
Primary Progressive Aphasia

Development of the Brief Cope for Aphasia

We are developing a coping questionnaire for persons with aphasia. Currently there are none that are aphasia friendly and standardized on persons with aphasia. This questionnaire is greatly needed to help address mental health needs of persons with aphasia.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

To better help people cope with aphasia we are making a coping questionnaire for persons with aphasia. This will allow therapists to help persons with aphasia.

City:
Atlanta
State:
Georgia
Start Date:
September 23, 2019
End Date:
May 31, 2025
Condition:
Stroke

Combined computerized and virtual group treatment for persons with primary progressive aphasia

New participants are enrolled at the start of each semester (fall and spring) for our virtual treatment study. Enrolled participants will complete a pretreatment assessment (2 hours), treatment (14 weeks), and a post-treatment assessment (2 hours). All study procedures are virtual (hosted using Zoom). During the treatment phase, participants are assigned weekly homework tasks on the Constant Therapy app (subscription provided by Constant Therapy for study participants) by a licensed speech-language pathologist. Participants are asked to complete Constant Therapy activities 5 days a week for 30 minutes. Participants will also meet for weekly, 1-hour virtual small-group treatment sessions with a speech-language pathologist. Homework assignments are updated each week.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

During this study, you will complete thinking, talking, and listening tasks on your smartphone or tablet using the Constant Therapy app. Homework will be assigned to you by a speech therapist. You will complete homework tasks 5 days a week for 30 minutes. You will also meet with a small group and a speech therapist online once a week for one hour. Treatment lasts 14 weeks during spring and fall semesters.

City:
Albuquerque
State:
New Mexico
Start Date:
March 1, 2022
End Date:
December 31, 2025
Condition:
Primary Progressive Aphasia

Traumatic Brain Injury Goals, Rehabilitation Practices, and Outcomes Study

Have you had a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or concussion? Have you participated in outpatient rehab for your TBI/concussion? Are you 18 years of age or older? If so, you may be eligible to take part in a survey looking to get your opinions on outpatient rehab. For example, we are interested in learning more about your brain injury, types of treatment you received, your goals/motivations, and mental health. Hopefully, results from this study can help rehab professionals improve patient care and long term health outcomes.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

City:
Baton Rouge
State:
LA
Start Date:
July 21, 2022
End Date:
July 14, 2025
Condition:
Traumatic Brain Injury

Sentence Production Training in Aphasia

The purpose of this study is to better understand language learning processes in persons with aphasia. In this NIH-funded project, our goal is to develop novel treatment for persons with aphasia for improving sentence production and comprehension.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

We are inviting persons with aphasia after stroke to take part in a language training study. During the sessions you will be asked to complete a set of tasks, such as describing pictures you see on a computer screen, reading or repeating sentences. The study is offered in person (location: West Lafayette, IN or Indianapolis, IN) and virtual options are available.

City:
West Lafayette
State:
Indiana
Start Date:
August 1, 2021
End Date:
May 30, 2026
Condition:
Stroke

Molecular and Structural Imaging in Atypical Alzheimer's Disease

Participants are asked to come to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN for 2-4 evaluations, each being one year apart. During those visits, participants are asked to complete an MRI, Amyloid PET scan, Tau PET scan, blood sample and Neuro exam.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

Patients with PPA (Logopenic variant) and PCA (Posterior Cortical Atrophy) are eligible to participate in this study.

City:
Rochester
State:
Minnesota
Start Date:
May 1, 2016
End Date:
April 30, 2026
Condition:
Primary Progressive Aphasia, Posterior Cortical Atrophy

Optimizing Targeted Interventions for Aphasia

Sixty-two patients who are one-year post-stroke and have aphasia due to stroke will be recruited. Participants will have four assessment sessions and 15 treatment sessions. The TDCS will be to right Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) (25 active, 25 sham) for 15 days. A combined semantic feature analysis/phonological components analysis treatment will be paired with the stimulation. Two assessment sessions will be pretreatment, one session immediately post-treatment, and one session at 3-month follow-up.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

You will complete an MRI and EEG along with speech-language assessment before treatment. Treatment will consist of 15 sessions in 3 weeks. During the treatment session, you will be fitted with a cap with electrodes for brain stimulation and complete one hour of naming treatment. Immediately after treatment, you will complete an EEG and language assessment and then again three months after treatment.

City:
Albuquerque
State:
New Mexico
Start Date:
April 30, 2021
End Date:
May 1, 2026
Condition:
Stroke

Activity, Health, and Burden in Caregivers

This research is studying the differences in life activities, participation levels, health-related behaviors, and mood between adults who identify as caregivers and adults who do not identify as caregivers. Participation will involve completing several short questionnaires to examine your life activities, participation levels, health-related behaviors, and mood. The survey should take about 30-45 minutes to complete.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

This study will examine life activities, participation, health-related behaviors, and mood for caregivers and non-caregiving controls. Participation will involve completing several short questionnaires to examine activities, participation, health-related behaviors, and mood. The survey should take about 30-45 minutes to complete.

City:
Albuquerque
State:
New Mexico
Start Date:
March 30, 2016
End Date:
December 31, 2025
Condition:

Assessment of anomia: Improving efficiency and utility using item response theory

The purpose of this research study is to develop a standard scale for measuring the ability to name things in people who have aphasia. We will use this information to develop tests that are clinically useful and scientifically sound, and to develop a new computer adaptive test of naming. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide speech-language pathologists with better tools for evaluating the naming abilities of persons with aphasia.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

The purpose of this study is to develop a computerized test to assess word finding difficulties. To be included you must meet the following criteria: - Have aphasia (difficulty talking) after left side stroke - Speak English as your first language - No speech-language treatment during the study (2 weeks). Note: This is an in-person study. Must live near the Portland, Oregon metro area or be able to travel.

City:
Portland
State:
Oregon
Start Date:
April 6, 2021
End Date:
April 30, 2025
Condition:
Stroke, Aphasia

fMRI Language and Cognition study

This study investigates the relationship between language and other cognitive abilities, as well as the reorganization of the language system after a stroke. The study involves a comprehensive assessment of language and cognitive abilities. This is done remotely over video-conferencing. The study also involves an in-person brain scanning session (MRI). We can provide a laptop to do the testing sessions at home if the participant does not have one. The sessions will be scheduled at times that work best for the participant. If you are interested, please contact us by email at brainrec@bu.edu or give us a call at 617-353-2706.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

In this study, researchers want to better understand language recovery in people with aphasia. We also examine how the brain reorganizes after a stroke. If you want to participate, you will do 8 to 10 behavioral testing sessions and 1 MRI scan. The testing sessions can be done on a computer at home. The MRI scan will be done at Boston University in Boston. We can provide a laptop to do the testing sessions at home if you do not have one. The sessions will be scheduled at times that work best for you. If you are interested, please contact us by email at brainrec@bu.edu or give us a call at 617-353-2706.

City:
Boston
State:
Massachusetts
Start Date:
September 1, 2020
End Date:
December 31, 2024
Condition:
Stroke

The Ohio State University - Aphasia Lab Study

The Ohio State University’s Aphasia Laboratory is currently seeking participants for an NIHfunded project involving a free speech therapy for adults with language impairments after a stroke. Results from this work may assist families and patients in making informed stroke rehabilitation decisions, based on unique characteristics, such as genetics, cognitive skills, and brain structure after stroke. This study is mostly virtual and we can loan participants a laptop computer, and/or internet access if needed. Most in-person sessions can be held either in our lab (OSU’s campus) or at the participant’s home. The required MRI must occur at our elected facility in Columbus, OH. Participants will be paid $20 per session. Participants must fit the following criteria: • Between the ages of 18 and 85 • Native English speaker • Have had a left hemisphere stroke • Able to have an MRI If you or someone you know may be interested in getting involved, please call (614) 247-1982 or email aphasialab@osu.edu. For more information, feel free to visit our website, u.osu.edu/aphasialab/.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

Looking to join a research study for person's with aphasia? We are looking for adults with language impairments after a stroke. The results from this study will help better understand what therapy techniques work best based on factors such as genetics, every-day decision making skills, and brain structure.

City:
Columbus
State:
Ohio
Start Date:
August 21, 2019
End Date:
August 30, 2025
Condition:
Stroke

How Stroke Affects Activities of Daily Living

Online or in-person behavior testing for two hours; for interested participants it can also involve a 1.5-hour MRI session. The goal of the study is to understand how the brain systems that support seeing, speaking and understanding work together.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

We want to understand how stroke affects everyday abilities like recognizing familiar objects and people, speaking one's thoughts and grasping and using objects.

City:
Pittsburgh
State:
Pennsylvania
Start Date:
October 10, 2022
End Date:
October 10, 2024
Condition:
Stroke

Development of The Brief Cope for Aphasia

Recruiting participants with aphasia and their caregivers for an online research study. The purpose of the study is to develop a coping questionnaire for patients with post-stroke aphasia. Relatively little is known about stress and coping among patients with post-stroke aphasia. Currently there exists no coping questionnaires developed specifically for people with aphasia. The current study aims to develop an aphasia coping questionnaire.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

We want to develop a coping questionnaire for people with aphasia to learn more about stress and coping.

City:
Atlanta
State:
Georgia
Start Date:
December 2, 2021
End Date:
August 31, 2025
Condition:
Stroke

Modulating stimuli intensity to improve clinical outcomes in aphasia treatment (VIRTUAL)

The purpose of this study is to evaluate how changing conditions of speech-language treatment (namely, amount of repetition and distribution of practice schedule) affects the language outcome of participants with aphasia following a stroke. Using a computer-based speech and language therapy program, participants will practice conversational scripts that are either short or long. Participants will practice for either 2 weeks (5 days a week) or for 5 weeks (2 days a week).

Aphasia friendly listing description:

• Conversation practice on the computer with a “virtual therapist” • We will loan you all equipment needed for the study • Participation in the study lasts either 11 weeks or 14 weeks • You will receive 10 treatment sessions. Treatment lasts either 2 weeks or 5 weeks: o 2-week schedule: 1 hour/day, 5 days/week o 5-week schedule: 1 hour/day, 2 days/week • All visits online (Zoom) OR in-person with Shirley Ryan AbilityLab research staff: o Evaluations (4 times, 1-2 days each) o Training (1-2 days)

City:
Chicago
State:
Illinois
Start Date:
September 21, 2020
End Date:
June 30, 2024
Condition:
Stroke

Phase III Development of a Valid, Reliable, Clinically Feasible Measure of Transactional Success in Aphasic Conversation

The purpose of this study is to validate a measure of transactional success in semi-structured conversation in aphasia. Participants will attend four 1-hour sessions over a period of approximately two weeks, administered entirely over Zoom. In the first two sessions, we will acquire traditional measures of language and cognition, including typical discourse elicited from picture descriptions. In the second two sessions, participants will view four short video clips. After each one, they will describe what they saw/heard to the administrator, then engage in a six-minute conversation with a familiar or unfamiliar conversation partner, after which the partner will retell the story.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

We know that people with aphasia communicate better than they talk, but we do not have good tests to measure how well they communicate in conversation with others. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate that the test we are developing is correctly measuring what we intend to measure and that it consistently does a good job of measuring success in conversation. Participants will attend four 1-hour sessions over a period of approximately two weeks. All test sessions will be administered over Zoom. In the first two sessions, we will collect the usual measures of language and cognition, including descriptions of pictures. In the second two sessions, participants will view four short video clips, each lasting about 2.5 minutes. After each video, they will describe what they saw and heard to the SLP. After that, they will have a six-minute conversation with a familiar or unfamiliar conversation partner about what they saw and heard. Finally, the conversation partner will retell the story.

City:
Amherst
State:
Massachsetts
Start Date:
July 1, 2022
End Date:
June 30, 2024
Condition:
Stroke

Speech and language processing in people with aphasia

The research involves four sessions that are two- to three-hours long where you do the following: complete tasks assessing speech and language processing; listen to an audiobook and a clip from a podcast while electroencephalography (EEG) data are collected.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

You will do some tests like you would with a speech therapist. You will also listen to a story while we record brain activity using EEG.

City:
Houston
State:
Texas
Start Date:
October 7, 2022
End Date:
December 31, 2024
Condition:
Stroke

Assessment of anomia: Improving efficiency and utility using item response theory

The purpose of this research study is to develop a standard scale for measuring the ability to name things in people who have aphasia. We will use this information to develop tests that are clinically useful and scientifically sound, and to develop a new computer adaptive test of naming. The ultimate goal of this study is to provide speech-language pathologists with better tools for evaluating the naming abilities of persons with aphasia.

Aphasia friendly listing description:

City:
Pittsburgh
State:
PA
Start Date:
April 6, 2021
End Date:
April 30, 2025
Condition:
Aphasia

Neural and Cognitive Bases of Language Processing

The purpose of the study is to answer questions about normal and impaired language processing and their underlying neural and cognitive mechanisms. Specifically, how persons with aphasia understand & produce words and sentences using different experiments. * remote and in-person testing is available *participants will be asked to produce/listen to sentences. At times when looking at a computer screen which tracks eye movements. * sessions are approximately 2 hours in length

Aphasia friendly listing description:

City:
West Lafayette
State:
Indiana
Start Date:
June 1, 2022
End Date:
June 11, 2025
Condition:
Stroke