Have you wondered why you didn’t recover from your stroke as well as you’d hoped? Have you wondered why your strengths and weaknesses are so different from other stroke survivors you meet? In BUILD (Brain-based Understanding of Individual Language Differences after stroke), we’re studying whether these differences are due to the nature of your stroke and also the strength of brain structures and connections that were not affected by your stroke. By understanding these “individual differences” in language and the brain, we hope in the future to predict who will recover well and who may need extra help after their stroke. BUILD will also help us understand which brain structures and connections are essential to language and cognitive abilities, such as reading, perceiving speech, and finding and producing words. BUILD will also help us understand how brain plasticity allows reorganization of these functions after injury. Ultimately, we hope that BUILD will guide us toward new targets for brain stimulation treatments that improve language and cognitive abilities after stroke.